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Cuba Historical Synthesis

Since the spanish conquers were seated in Cuba, they submit the aboriginal people to slave, so because of that this population was extinguished in few decades. In order to supply this worker hand, Spain began to import thousand of black from Africa, to works as a slave in the sugar cane plantations. In this way was introduced one of the elements that mixture with the spanish create the cuban native people. With the time this cuban native joined very hard to Cuba, its native land, losing their connection with Spain and doesn't wanted to be disposed to occupy a secondary place in front of the metropolitan merchants and rulers that obligated them to negotiate only with Spain. It was rising in this way a national feeling that found its maxim expression in the XIX century with the begining of the fighting for independence.

In the middle of the XVIII century, an unexpected fact shaked strongly the economic, political and social environment of Cuba: the occupation of Havana for the english in 1762. During eleven months entered to the Havana port, more than one thousand ships that established a wide trade with the Thirteen northamerican colony, At the same time the english introduced more than ten thousands slaves to impel the development of the sugar cane industry. Havana was recovered in 1763, changed with the peninsula of Florida,discovered and conquered by Spain in the XVI century.

In front of this facts, the process of formation the cuban nationality was speed up and became with the time more stronger the idea of the liberation. On October 10 of 1868, began the fight for the national independence. The landowner and lawyer bayames Carlos Manuel de Cespedes, set on fire his own sugar cane factory known as "La Demajagua" , announced the independence of Cuba and gave the freedom to his slaves. On this way began the first cuban indepence war that continued for ten years (until 1878). In this war stood out many patriots like Carlos Manuel de Cespedes, Antonio Maceo, Maximo Gomez, Ignacio Agramonte, Calixto Garcia and others.

In 1878 began a truce in the hostilities, and from this tuce emerged the most important figure in cuban independence fights; Jose Marti (1853-1895), who founded the Cuban Revolutionary Party. On February 24 of 1895, began again the war, conducted by Jose Marti, who was murdered on battle three months later. on May 19. Maximo Gomez and Antonio Maceo continued the fight and extended the war from the east side of the country to all Cuba. Spain nothing could be done in front of the advance of the Cuban troops. United States, which saw the imminence of the cuban victory and which desired from many years behind the possession of Cuba, announced the war against Spain, took as a pretext the dark fact of the explosion of the north american battleship "Maine" anchored in the Havana Bay.

The war finished with the signature of the peace treaty (The Paris treaty, on December 10 of 1898) between Spain and the United States and as consequence of this North America took the absolute control of Cuba,Puerto Rico and Filipinas. On May 20 of 1902, was conceded to Cuba, after three years of United States guide, a formal independence controled by a cuban oligarchy dependent from Washington, who became the country in a United States neo-colony. Since that, many corrupted governments and north american interventions were succeeded, who completed the mission to deliver the country richness to external interest.

On March 10 of 1952, the general Fulgencio Batista, gave an state blow and established one of the most repressive dictatorial goverment in the cuban history. On July 26, of 1953, a group of young people with . . at his head, attacked in Santiago of Cuba (at the east side of the country) the Moncada quarter, the second cuban military fortress with the objetive of arm the people and began general insurrection. The attack finished with a military defeat, but it highlighted the figure of . . as a leader of the future . . . . and the other survivors of the attack were sentenced to jail in the Model Prison at the Island of Pines (today Island of youth). An strong popular campaign obtained the prisoners amnesty, who went to an excile in Mexico in 1955.

In Mexico, . ., organized his companion of the attack of the Moncada quarter and other revolutionary that joined them, among them were the argentine Ernesto "Che" Guevara. They left the mexican port of Tuxpan to Cuba on board of the Granma yacht and disembarked on December 2 of 1956 by the Coloradas beach, in the south of the east region, restarted the armed fight, this time as a guerillas on the Sierra Maestra mountains. At the same time it was organized in all of the country a secret fight.

On January 1 of 1959, the dictator Fulgencio Batista, finally defeated for the revolutionary army troops commanded by . ., left Cuba. It was the triumph of the Cuban .. The revolutionary government started a socialist program to establish a national development in all the country. At the same time it was impelled a deep social development program that make Cuba the country of the higher levels of social justice in the Third World. It could be highlighted in this program the higher achievements in public health, on which Cuba aspire to be a world leader; in the education, gratuitous for all levels and obligatory until the high school; in sports and in the culture which is accessible to all the cubans and proclaim for our artists all over the world.

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